The tire has a "bead" of wire or Kevlar cord molded into them that doesn't stretch. This is what keeps the tire within the edge of the wheel. It simply has no place to go. Next they add non-stretch cords to maintain the shape under pressure (carcass)... and all this is molded into the rubber along with the tread.
Bearings are somewhat specialized and come in several flavors. Best to do a Google search on "bicycle wheel hub" to get some ideas on how they are made.
Spokes are also interesting as the bicycle actually "hangs" on the vertical spokes on top.
Spokes bicycle wheels really are interesting from an engineering perspective. The more you look at them, the more you learn to appreciate them.