Features have feature numbers and names, which can be changed, but they are also assigned an i.d. number which cannot be changed.
Parts, assemblies drawing etc, should also have i.d. numbers so the files can be recognized by these numbers instead of the name. I don't know how many times I have been certain that I had everything in session, then renamed a component and saved, only to find out later that I forgot to save an assembly or a drawing that the part is in. It shouldn't matter what the part is called, it should be recognized by its i.d.
Now I can imagine how this might get complicated if you wanted to copy a file and rename it (so you could then alter the copy - to get say 2 screws of different lengths), so you would now have two different parts with the same i.d. There must be some way to deal with this though.